Energy Efficiency in Buildings
Although energy demand in the commercial and building sector is only 4% of total national energy demand, energy efficiency in this sector remains a priority. The types of commercial buildings that use large amounts of energy include office buildings, shopping centers, hotels and hospitals. Generally, energy used by commercial buildings is for air conditioning and lighting. Improvements in energy efficiency in buildings promise benefits from energy savings. Potential savings that could be achieved depend on the amount of the investment made.
Measures to increase energy efficiency in the commercial and building sector can be divided into:
1. Existing Buildings
For existing buildings, increasing energy efficiency can be achieved through improved building performance. To know the specific measures, an energy audit needs to be done which may include identification and analysis of overall energy efficiency issues in the building such as building operational system or HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning), level of comfort and building maintenance. The steps that are usually applied are retrofitting, upgrade in technology and equipment, and the practice of energy-efficient behaviors for building occupants.
2. New Buildings
If energy efficiency is considered since the initial phase of designing new buildings, then new buildings should have more opportunities to save energy compared to existing buildings. Indonesian National Standards relating to energy conservation in buildings (lighting systems, air conditioning systems and building envelopes) must be applied when designing the building.
Buildings with airtight envelopes (outer walls, windows, roof and floor) are more energy efficient. Similarly, a good building insulation can also help reduce heat conduction through the outer walls. Improving the efficiency of building envelopes is a low-cost process but promises high profits through energy savings.